Category Archives: Takeaways


I learned that history is not always accurate. When things are seen or heard, each person interpretes it differently, and when a historian writes a novel or book based on the event, it will be from what he/she has interpreted, which is not the same as someone else. Therefore the word history itself describes what it is “his” and “story”, meaning that it is from one person’s view and can differ from many other people’s views.


Differences between Natural and Human Sciences

Both sciences have similar methods in that both observe, hypothesize, experiment, gather data, analyze the results and hope to create a law from this. However, the key difference between these two sciences is that while natural sciences can make predictions, human sciences cannot. There are many other differences between these two sciences as well. Firstly, while natural sciences look at the mechanical causes and effects of subjects, human sciences look at the purpose and meaning behind human behavior. Secondly, natural sciences are more objective than human sciences. Third, natural science experiments are done mostly in laboratories while human sciences are not. These are only some of the differences between these two sciences. While there are differences, there are also similarities such as the types of variables and the importance of replicating results.

Knowledge Issues/ Countries

To what extent do the intended uses of research in human sciences affect the certainty of the claims made?

From these articles, I learned that it is hard to justify the data that is used to measure happiness in a country as people have different criteria to measure their own happiness. Also, it is easy to manipulate the measurements to get the answers you want. For instance, if you want to show that the school is more diverse, you would find ways to make your data come out as smaller percentages of Japanese people so that it seems there aren’t that many people of one population. Therefore, certainty may not be achieved as the data can be manipulated.

Who won the Olympics?

Knowledge claims

  • Precise language is necessary in the articulation of knowledge claims in order to (achieve)(increase)

Human Science Methodology (Explanation, Justification, Evidence = Measure)

  • Qualitative data (can be)(is often) converted into quantitative measures
  • Operationalizing variables allows a researcher to manipulate and isolate effects
  • how we measure a phenomena or object can affect our conclusions about it

Quantitative Measure 

  • may appear to be more objective but they may not be

Psychology and Video

There are many difficulties in carrying out experiments. To make observations, data must be taken from carefully controlled observations. Some of the challenges of designing and carrying out experiments are the participants. Many are not always cooperative or motivated to participate. Therefore, people should carefully choose who they use and make sure that the participants do not know what they are doing beforehand so they don’t manipulate or change the data and the experimenter should not know what they are doing either. This is known as double blind. To achieve valid results, valid measurements must be used, participant motivation must be increased and lastly, there must be a strong design and tight manipulation.


Language, or the way things are worded, can affect how a reader judges and views a culture.