Category Archives: Theory of Knowledge

Questions about Ethics

What is ethics?

How can someone judge what is ethical?

Who judges what is right and wrong?

Does ethics differ between age groups?

Does ethics differ between cultures?

Has ethics changed over time?

Can there be evidence provided for what is right and wrong?

Can something immoral be considered ethical?

Can ethics be measured?

How can ethics be measured?

What is the most common ethical situation?

Is it okay to blame something unethical on religion?

How can a conversation about ethics take place with differing ethics?

Are there any ethical situations that are universally accepted?

Are there any unethical situations universally accepted?

Is ethics important?

How is ethics important?

Are people always making ethical choices?

How can one decide which choice is ethical?

Is the decision based on society?

Or is the decision based on themselves?

What is the line between ethical and unethical?

Does this apply to everyone?

Questions about Beauty

What is beauty?

Can beauty be measured?

How can beauty be measured?

Is beauty the same for everyone?

Does beauty change over time?

Can something be beautiful and ugly at the same time?

What it the most important type of beauty?

Is natural beauty considered more important that unnatural beauty?

Does something beautiful have to be colorful?

Can something black and white be beautiful?

Questions about Art

What is art?

Where is art found?

Can music be art?

Can writing be art?

When did art start?

Who started art?

Is art important?

Why is art important?

How do you do art?

Is art creative?

Is art real?

Is art personal?

What forms of art are there?

Can art ever end?

What does art include?

Who can do art?

Are you born with art?

Do you have to learn art?

What do you use for art?

Do you use visuals?

Does art include books?

Are there any rules for art?

Is there a specific way to do art?

Is color part of art?

What is used in visual arts?

What is the most used art form?

Is there a most used art form?

Does art vary for different cultures?

Protected: History Presenation

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History

I learned that history is not always accurate. When things are seen or heard, each person interpretes it differently, and when a historian writes a novel or book based on the event, it will be from what he/she has interpreted, which is not the same as someone else. Therefore the word history itself describes what it is “his” and “story”, meaning that it is from one person’s view and can differ from many other people’s views.

Differences between Natural and Human Sciences

Both sciences have similar methods in that both observe, hypothesize, experiment, gather data, analyze the results and hope to create a law from this. However, the key difference between these two sciences is that while natural sciences can make predictions, human sciences cannot. There are many other differences between these two sciences as well. Firstly, while natural sciences look at the mechanical causes and effects of subjects, human sciences look at the purpose and meaning behind human behavior. Secondly, natural sciences are more objective than human sciences. Third, natural science experiments are done mostly in laboratories while human sciences are not. These are only some of the differences between these two sciences. While there are differences, there are also similarities such as the types of variables and the importance of replicating results.

TOK experiment

Orignal Knowledge Question: To what extent can we trust the conclusions drawn from human science research?

Question for Experiment:  To what extent are our preferences affected by certain claims?

Experiment Knowledge Issue: Bias

Knowledge Issues/ Countries

To what extent do the intended uses of research in human sciences affect the certainty of the claims made?

From these articles, I learned that it is hard to justify the data that is used to measure happiness in a country as people have different criteria to measure their own happiness. Also, it is easy to manipulate the measurements to get the answers you want. For instance, if you want to show that the school is more diverse, you would find ways to make your data come out as smaller percentages of Japanese people so that it seems there aren’t that many people of one population. Therefore, certainty may not be achieved as the data can be manipulated.

Who won the Olympics?

Knowledge claims

  • Precise language is necessary in the articulation of knowledge claims in order to (achieve)(increase)

Human Science Methodology (Explanation, Justification, Evidence = Measure)

  • Qualitative data (can be)(is often) converted into quantitative measures
  • Operationalizing variables allows a researcher to manipulate and isolate effects
  • how we measure a phenomena or object can affect our conclusions about it

Quantitative Measure 

  • may appear to be more objective but they may not be

Psychology and Video

There are many difficulties in carrying out experiments. To make observations, data must be taken from carefully controlled observations. Some of the challenges of designing and carrying out experiments are the participants. Many are not always cooperative or motivated to participate. Therefore, people should carefully choose who they use and make sure that the participants do not know what they are doing beforehand so they don’t manipulate or change the data and the experimenter should not know what they are doing either. This is known as double blind. To achieve valid results, valid measurements must be used, participant motivation must be increased and lastly, there must be a strong design and tight manipulation.