India has been struggling with poverty for a very long time. In a single country, it has the largest number of people living in poverty. Out of 1.189 billion people, in India, 37% of them live under the poverty line. 75% of the people under the poverty line come from rural areas. This means that more than 450 million people in this single country are living under a $1 per day and are lacking some of the basic needs such as food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, information, and services. This is due to the high population growth and low literacy rate however programs have been implemented to reduce the poverty.
India has many people living in poverty but varies for both rural and urban areas, showing relative poverty. In rural areas, if an individual does not have $7.50 a month or $90 a year, they are considered to be living under the poverty line. The same goes for if they are not able to intake 2400 calories a day. In urban areas, if individuals do not have $12 per month or $144 per year, and do not intake 2100 calories, they are living below the poverty line. By setting the standards of poverty through calories, the government can make sure that the people living in these areas are receiving proper nutrition and food, which is one of the basic necessities of life. Through this, one can see that India’s poverty differs between areas in the country.
High population growth and the illiteracy rate of India are issues that are causing poverty. In urban areas, high population growth is an issue because jobs can be harder to find as there are more people looking for jobs. In rural areas, agriculture is very important, however with bigger and more families, there is more competition and this causes the families to earn less income. Sometimes, some of the villagers migrate to cities hoping for better opportunities, and this leads to shanties and slum areas, also causing urban population. Also, about 40% of the total population in India are illiterate and therefore, are not getting an education, which in turn could mean unemployment. With this high population growth continuing, poverty can continue to be a big issue in India.
Though India has a high poverty rate, it is also improving. As shown in this graph, one can see that at the beginning, India struggled with poverty. The life expectancy and GDP per capita was low (25, $563) until around the 1900s when the life expectancy started to increase. The life expectancy kept increasing, while the GDP per capita continued to stay low until the 1980s when both the life expectancy and GDP per capita increased. In 2009, the life expectancy was 64, a huge improvement from 25, and the GDP/capita was $2731. By being able to increase its life expectancy, it shows that India has been able to afford better health care and thus, making the lives of the people longer. Also, by being able to increase its GDP per capita even though the population is becoming larger, it shows that they have a lot of economic growth. This is because, GDP per capita requires dividing the GDP among all the people and with more people, each person gets less money. However, India has still been able to increase the GDP per capita with more people to divide the money between. One can see that India has found a way to improve its poverty over the years.
This graph also shows the decrease of poverty over the years in India. One can see that the rural poverty, urban poverty, and poverty as a whole in this country continue to decrease. To decrease the poverty even further, many programs have been implemented in 1970 by the Indian government. One of the programs includes Training Rural Youth for Self Employment. This was started to provide the rural youth with skills needed to help them get employed in agriculture, industries, services, and business activities. Youth between the age of 18-35 in poor families are given some benefits of this scheme. Also, ex servicemen are given priority and 1/3 of the opportunities are given to women. Programs have also been created to reduce urban population such as Self-employment Programme for the Urban Poor and Scheme for Self-employment of he Educated Urban Youths. These programs give unemployed youths in urban areas loans and subsidies to help find or create jobs. The Self-employment Programme for the Urban Poor has been able to provide financial help to about 1.19 urban unemployed youths in the years 1990 to 1991. There are also other programs such a Public Distribution System, Integrated Rural Development Program, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, and the as well as other programs. With these programs helping those in poverty, there is a possibility of eradicating poverty.
Poverty is a huge issue in India because of the growing population and inadequate education leading to illiteracy. However, over the years, India has been able to reduce the poverty with more and more programs being executed. With this support, it is possible for poverty to be eradicated in India, but this process may take a lot time.
BBC NEWS | Programmes | Crossing Continents | Fighting poverty in India. (n.d.). BBC News – Home. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/crossing_continents/1723539.stm
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Poverty in India, Poverty rate in India, Population below poverty line, Poverty Reduction in India, Urban Poverty In India, Rural Poverty In India, Indian Problems. (n.d.). Indian NGO,NGO in India,NGO in Kishanganj Bihar,Rural Development,Rural Girl Child Welfare Reform,Indian Child welfare,Social welfare,Health Welfare India,NGO for Social Services,Child Welfare Services,Welfare for the Rural Woman,Child Welfare system,Chil. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://www.azadindia.org/social-issues/poverty-in-india.html
Poverty in India – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.).Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_India
Define the following terms: tourism, beach nourishment, and revetment wall.
Tourism is one of the land uses of the coast. Tourism is the act of travelling for pleasure and the business that is gained from this act. Beach nourishment is one of the soft engineering methods. This specific method is when sand and sometimes vegetation is added to the beach to make the sand stay. Lastly, revetment walls are a hard coastal engineering method. Revetment walls are right along the beach and are sloping structures that are usually placed on banks or cliffs to absorb the impact of the water.
Using Images 1 and 2, describe the importance of the coast of Surfers Paradise.
Every coast in important in some way, whether its for resource extraction, settlements, wildlife habitats, industries, tourism, or transportation. Looking at Image 1 and 2, there are two main reasons why the coast of Surfers Paradise is important. Firstly, the coast is important because of tourism as shown in Image 1. With the beach, people are encouraged to come to this country for vacation or other recreational purposes as well. Since tourism is an industry as the country earns money every time a tourist comes, this can really boost the economy for the country, and therefore the coast is important. Another reason why the coast is important is because of settlements. As shown in Image 2, many buildings and houses are located beside the coast. The coast is important for settlement because it is home for many people and it would be very dangerous and unfortunate if the coast got eroded.
Using Images 3 and 4, explain the coastal management strategies used at Surfers Paradise.
A coast is dynamic, meaning that it is constantly changing and therefore, needs to be managed. Coastal management is a type of management where strategies are used on place to protect areas from coastal erosion, transportation, and deposition. Coasts are very important in specific areas for several reasons and it is important to protect them from getting destroyed. Coastal erosion is the weathering and transportation of solids to some place else, and specifically in beaches, sand can be carried from the beach to somewhere far away. Long shore drift is when matter is moved along a coast by waves approached at an angle to the shore but are moved further away from it. This can also be a problem if the water ends up near homes. For these and other reasons, all coasts must be protected and managed.
Looking at Image 1, because Surfers Paradise is a beach, there must be some type of beach nourishment used. Beach nourishment is one of the soft engineering methods used. Soft coastal engineering does not require a lot of work since nothing is built and it tries to let natural processes work. Beach nourishment specifically, is when sand and sometimes vegetation is added to help the sand stay. This is important when sand that was eroded or lost through long shore drift needs to be replaced. It can prevent the sand from being further eroded on to where settlements are located. However, since the coast is dynamic, this process is a repetitive one. In Surfers Paradise, the beach is widened so that storm damage to coastal structures can be decreased since energy is dissolved across the surf zone. Because this is a beach that is used and looked at very often, not many hard engineering methods can be used because it could potentially make the place look unattractive. This is one of the reasons that beach nourishment is important because it can keep the beach healthy and attractive in a natural and unnoticeable way.
Another type of method used was hard engineering. Hard coastal engineering is when great changes are made to the coastal environment and require a lot of human energy to create because it needs to be built and maintained. There are two types of hard engineering methods used in this coast. Firstly, in Image 3, a revetment wall can be seen. A revetment wall is a sloping structure that keeps the shape of the beach and protects it from getting eroded by absorbing the impact of the water. This specific revetment wall was made with rocks to help it stay in place. This method is helpful in controlling the tides and keeping the beach intact. Because Surfers Paradise is a tourist area and based on that industry and also has many settlements along the coast, it is important for it to be protected from getting destroyed so that it continue to allow tourists and settlements on its coast. Without it, the beach could get eroded and this would mean that settlements would be destroyed and tourists would not visit this area.
The last and other type of hard engineering technique used was creating an artificial reef shown in Image 4. Building this reef received a lot of publicity from around the world since the reef and beach widening/ nourishment has “given the community every reason to get active and enjoy the great outdoors”. (Gold Coast City Council – Coastal Management, n.d.) It is used as an off-shore method to defend the beach against erosion and also to improve the surfing methods as this beach is very popular as a surfing area. It is built in the water so that it can also control the tides from getting on shore. Through these three coastal management strategies, Surfers Paradise has so far been able to keep its beach undamaged so that it continues to attract many tourists and settlements.
Aerial View of Surfers Paradise – Gold Coast Australia. (n.d.). Gold Coast Accommodation, Maps, Attractions, Weather & More â€” Gold Coast Australia. Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://www.goldcoastaustralia.com/pt-surfers-aerial.html
Bay, r. (n.d.). Surfers Paradise, Queensland – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surfers_Paradise,_Queensland
Coastal, G. C. (n.d.). North Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy. International Coastal Management (ICM): Coastal engineering consultants specialising in eco-engineered beach protection and improvment structures. Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://www.coastalmanagement.com.au/projects/NGCBPS/
Engineering an Artificial Issues. (n.d.). Coastal Management. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.coastalmanagement.com.au/papers/GFR2002.pdf
Gold Coast City Council – Coastal Management . (n.d.). Gold Coast City Council . Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au/t_standard.aspx?pid=511
Gold Coast City Council – Northern Gold Coast Beach Protection Strategy . (n.d.). Gold Coast City Council . Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au/t_standard2.aspx?pid=160
Google Earth. Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast. Image taken on June 23, 2008 and retrieved on May 12, 2011.
Interactive Surfers Paradise Map — Gold Coast Australia. (n.d.). Gold Coast Accommodation, Maps, Attractions, Weather & More — Gold Coast Australia. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.goldcoastaustralia.com/map-interactive-surfers-paradise.html
Surfers Paradise Vacations – Surfers Paradise Travel Guide – Surfers Paradise Tourism Information. (n.d.). Cheap Vacations, Cheap Flights – Open Travel. Retrieved May 12,2011, from http://opentravel.com/Surfers-Paradise-Australia-Vacations-Guide
LA, New York, Mumbai, jakarta, and Rio are all located far away from each other but after watching many presentations for these countries, I realized that they have a lot in common. Firstly, they are all located on the coast and this location has both advantages and disadvantages for these countries.
Each country has two populations, one of the city itself and the other that is the metropolitan population. The metropolitan population is almost always around double the city population and is always over 10 million people. In LA, the city population is around 10 million while the metropolitan is around 17 million. In New York, the city population is around 8 million while the metropolitan is around 19 million. In Mumbai, the city population is around 13 million while the metropolitan is around 21 million. In Jakarta, the city population is around 9.5 million while the metropolitan is around 18.5 million. Lastly, in Rio the city population is around 6 million while the metropolitan is around 10 million. The metropolitan population is not double the city population, so Rio is an anomaly to this pattern.
For each of these countries, the population has developed because of settlements. LA first had 50 settlers but after the California Gold Rush, the population increased dramatically to what it is today. New York’s population increased because of Dutch fur trading which caused European settlement. Mumbai’s population increased exponentially since the late 1800s and mid 1950s. Jakarta’s population increased with immigrants that escaped poverty in the Java Islands (1.6 million a year). Lastly, Rio ‘s population developed 1.28 % a year with settlements.
Historical and Current Significance of Coast
There are many reasons why the coast was significantly important for these countries. The coasts are very important for trade because having ports are an easy way to transport and trade products without extra costs. They are also important for industries and markets such as the fish markets in LA that help it economically. It’s important for resource extraction such as mineral extraction in Rio. Rio replaced Salvador as the main city for mineral extraction in 1763 because of the many resources found in this country as it is located on a coast. Lastly, because of being located near beaches and coasts, these countries have also attracted a lot of tourism and settlements. All these reasons are still true today for the important of the coast in these countries. They are still very important for mineral extraction, tourism, settlement, transportation, trade, and industries.
Current Coastal Problems
There are many coastal problems for these countries. Because they are located near coasts, the rising sea level can really impact them. It causes floods and other disasters such as natural disasters, which will still go on in the future. Also, many of the countries are affected by extreme amounts of rainfall which also cause flooding and landslides. In Jakarta, clogged sewage systems and waterways are also a coastal issue.
Future Coastal Problems
Rising sea level will still be a problem in the future. It will continue to cause flooding and natural disasters. Also, it will worsen with climate change. Also, coastal erosion can be a problem because it can cause property to be lost or to be moved before it gets knocked down by water. Also, it can cause more waterways and sewage systems to be clogged and it may contaminate water.
1.New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington and Boston. Because it is located near the mouth of the Hudson River (which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean) the city has grown into a significant trading city over the years. New York is mainly built on Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making the population density high (because there are not much land).
2.The population of New York was 8,391,881 people as of July 1, 2009
3.The region was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery in 1524. European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement (on the southern tip of Manhattan) in 1614.
By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. In 1702, the city lost 10% of its population to yellow fever. Over the years, New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. Also, in the 19th~early 20th century, the city was transformed by immigration and development. Through Ellis Island, many immigrants came into New York, and as a result, the population gradually increased.
4.The coastline of New York was very useful when trading. As mentioned before, New York started out as a fur trading settlement. The reason why New York was able to become such a successful trading settlement is because it had a coastline.
Also, many immigrants came into New York by ship because there was a coastline. As mentioned before, these immigrants affected the population of New York greatly.
The coastline of New York had a immense effect on the history and population of the city.
5. ports for shipping and trading- this causes New York’s economy to increase
provides nutrients for marine life
-diversity of plants, animals, and insects which is crucial for the food chain
6. Coastal erosion results from beach-ocean interaction coupled with human activity. Wind, waves, and long shore currents are the driving forces behind coastal erosion.
Coastal erosion poses many problems to coastal communities when valuable property is lost to erosion. Additionally, human activity may worsen the process of coastal erosion through poor land use methods.
7.Continuous exposure to the elements can result in erosion of buildings.
Small natural disasters (such as floods). There are many small floods in New York.
Global warming: if the sea level rises it can flood the city
Resource extraction: Locating, receiving, and selling any type of resource but mostly natural resources.
This is a picture of a pearl from Tahiti. This example shows resource extraction because the pearl comes from an oyster that is from the water and because pearls are resources, when the pearl is taken from the water, it is resource extraction.
Settlements: Cities, towns, or other places that humans have inhibited an area of.
The location of this picture is Podstrana, Croastia. This is an example of settlements because there are many buildings and houses near the coast. One can tell it is not industries because it has houses that would be too small for industries and this shows it is settlement.
Wildlife habitats- An area that water supply and vegetative habitat is available for wildlife.
This is an example wildlife habitats in Mauritius. This shows a habitat of fish in the water.
Industries: “The aggregate of manufacturing or technically productive enterprise in a particular field, often named after its principal product.”
This is an example of industries on the Gulf Coast of the US. This is an example of industries because in the back you can see smoke coming out of buildings and cranes. The cranes would be part of the shipping industry.
Tourism: The act of travelling for pleasure and the business that “founded upon this activity. ”
This is an example of tourism in Philippines because there are many people near the beach. The indicators that these people are actually tourists are that there are no visible buildings or homes near this area. Also, these people are in their swim suits which shows they are most likely not residents in this area.
Transportation: The act of transporting products or people from one place to another.
This is an example of transportation in Europe. This is because the cruise on the water is transporting people from one place to another.
*none of the photos here are mine
In 1947, India was able to end 200 year rule from British and become dependent however was split into two separate countries. The British had gained full power over India in the 18th and 19th century and denied jobs in addition to high positions in the army and government to Muslims and Hindus. The Indian National Congress led by Jawaharlal Nehru was created at end of 19th century and demanded equal opportunity and freedom from colonial rule. The British wanted Muslims as their allies since the Muslims previously ruled India and this frightened the British, so they created the idea that Muslims were a separate political entry.
By the beginning of the 1900s Muslims had separate electorates in local governments and this led to the idea of separateness of Muslims in India. In 1906, the few Muslim delegates in the Indian National Congress left and formed a group named Muslim League because Muslim leaders led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah thought that since Hindus were dominating the Indian National congress they were dictating decisions made in British India so they wanted their own state in order to protect their Islamic Heritage. In 1940, the All-India Muslim League stated their wish for a separate state. This caused the Hindus to feel uncomfortable about being a minority in a Muslim majority state and this broke down relations with these groups.
On August 14, 1947, Pakistan was created. At midnight on August 15, 1947 India won its freedom from colonial rule. The partition caused a lot of rioting all over India. An estimated half million people died in violence and millions became homeless. It is known as one of the largest displacements of people in the 20th century.
Source A and B show the exact same event but different reactions. The message of these two sources is to show the diversity of the impact of the partition of India. In source A, a Muslim couple is with their grandchildren and is struggling to continue on with their trip to their recently created home. One can see that they are not very happy with the partition and are struggling to get to the other state. The old man is on the ground clearly looking worn-out and the children around him look exhausted as well. However, in source B, the exact opposite is shown. In this source, many people are excited to leave on a train to Pakistan. Contrary to the picture above, the people in this people are actually glad that they are moving to a new state. This shows exactly how diverse the partition was. Though it may have been a time to celebrate for some, it was definitely a hard and painful process for other people.