E.6b Reciprocal Altruism

reciprocal altruism = benefitting nonrelatives at cost to self, possibly self-sacrifice

  • origins: kin selection due to inclusive fitness produces familial altruism
  • genetic basis for behaviors which allow for self-sacrifice
  • extended to nonrelatives only under conditions which resist exploitation
  • repeated encounters + recognition of individuality
  • respond in kind (tit-for-tat; do unto others as they do to you)
  • recognition and punishment of cheaters
  • example: vampire bats
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