Monthly Archives: November 2012

11.3a: The Kidney

The process of ultrafiltration 

  • high blood pressure in the glomerulus
    • forces 1300 ml of blood filtrate into kidney nephridia per minute (2000 L/day)
    • as filtrate moves from glomerulus to nephron, it undergoes ultrafiltration
  • ultrafiltration
    • three layers of filtration:
      • fenestrated (porous) endothelial wall of glomerulus
      • basement membrane (extracellular protein) between glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule
      • slits of interdigitating extensions of podocytes making up Bowman’s capsule squamous epithelium
    • any substance small enough to be forced through the capillary wall and between the podocytes by blood pressure (blood serum and smaller dissolved particles) enters the lumen of the nephron tubule
    • larger particles (RBCs, WBCs, platelets, proteins) are excluded from entering nephron, keeping them within the blood vessels
    • ultrafiltration is nonselective, allowing water, urea, glucose, amino acids, salts, vitamins, hormones, minerals, and any other small particles to enter the nephridia

11.1b: Defense Against Infectious Disease

Antibody uses


  • fusion of cancerous tumor cells + B-lymphocytes = hybridomas
    • use tumor cells because, by being cancerous, they divide without limit
    • use B-lymphocytes which are a clone producing the antibody desired
    • thus, the hybridomas produce specific antibodies in large quantities indefinitely


  • HIV infection can be diagnosed through a blood test
  • which assays for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies,
    • antibody produced through monoclonal antibody production is an anti-anti-HIV antibody!


  • monoclonal antibodies can be produced which selectively locate and adhere to cancer cells
  • anti-cancer drugs can be attached to the monoclonal antibodies
    • so that they deliver their effects directly to the targeted cancer cells

11.1a: Defense Against Infectious Disease

Blood Clotting

The injury initiates release of clotting factors from damaged cells and platelets. The clotting factors initiate the activation of a cascade of enzymes. In this, prothrombin is converted from an inactive form to its active form of thrombin. Thrombin catalyzes the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble, fibrous protein fibrin. The fibrin captures red blood cells in a clot.

6.3 Defense Against Infection

A pathogen is an organism or virus that causes disease. Antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not viruses. This is because firstly, antibiotics block specific metabolic pathways found in bacteria, but not eukaryotic cells. Lastly, because viruses reproduce using the host cell (eukaryotic) metabolic pathways, they are unaffected by antibiotics. Antibiotics have produced great benefits world-wide in the control of bacterial diseases. Due to antibiotics, Staphylococcus infections controlled and STD’s, such as gonorrhea and syphilis are also controlled. Antibiotic resistance has  evolved in bacterial populations

Questions about Ethics

What is ethics?

How can someone judge what is ethical?

Who judges what is right and wrong?

Does ethics differ between age groups?

Does ethics differ between cultures?

Has ethics changed over time?

Can there be evidence provided for what is right and wrong?

Can something immoral be considered ethical?

Can ethics be measured?

How can ethics be measured?

What is the most common ethical situation?

Is it okay to blame something unethical on religion?

How can a conversation about ethics take place with differing ethics?

Are there any ethical situations that are universally accepted?

Are there any unethical situations universally accepted?

Is ethics important?

How is ethics important?

Are people always making ethical choices?

How can one decide which choice is ethical?

Is the decision based on society?

Or is the decision based on themselves?

What is the line between ethical and unethical?

Does this apply to everyone?

6.5b: Homeostasis – Glucose Regulation

Data-based question: the glucose tolerance test

a. The concentration of glucose is higher for the diabetic person.

b. It takes a longer length of time for the diabetic person’s glucose level to return to the level at time zero than that of the unaffected person.

c. The maximum glucose level is much higher in the diabetic person (about 400) then the unaffected person.

d. It takes longer for the diabetic person’s glucose levels to fall than the unaffected person.

Questions about Beauty

What is beauty?

Can beauty be measured?

How can beauty be measured?

Is beauty the same for everyone?

Does beauty change over time?

Can something be beautiful and ugly at the same time?

What it the most important type of beauty?

Is natural beauty considered more important that unnatural beauty?

Does something beautiful have to be colorful?

Can something black and white be beautiful?