India has been struggling with poverty for a very long time. In a single country, it has the largest number of people living in poverty. Out of 1.189 billion people, in India, 37% of them live under the poverty line. 75% of the people under the poverty line come from rural areas. This means that more than 450 million people in this single country are living under a $1 per day and are lacking some of the basic needs such as food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education, information, and services. This is due to the high population growth and low literacy rate however programs have been implemented to reduce the poverty.
India has many people living in poverty but varies for both rural and urban areas, showing relative poverty. In rural areas, if an individual does not have $7.50 a month or $90 a year, they are considered to be living under the poverty line. The same goes for if they are not able to intake 2400 calories a day. In urban areas, if individuals do not have $12 per month or $144 per year, and do not intake 2100 calories, they are living below the poverty line. By setting the standards of poverty through calories, the government can make sure that the people living in these areas are receiving proper nutrition and food, which is one of the basic necessities of life. Through this, one can see that India’s poverty differs between areas in the country.
High population growth and the illiteracy rate of India are issues that are causing poverty. In urban areas, high population growth is an issue because jobs can be harder to find as there are more people looking for jobs. In rural areas, agriculture is very important, however with bigger and more families, there is more competition and this causes the families to earn less income. Sometimes, some of the villagers migrate to cities hoping for better opportunities, and this leads to shanties and slum areas, also causing urban population. Also, about 40% of the total population in India are illiterate and therefore, are not getting an education, which in turn could mean unemployment. With this high population growth continuing, poverty can continue to be a big issue in India.
Though India has a high poverty rate, it is also improving. As shown in this graph, one can see that at the beginning, India struggled with poverty. The life expectancy and GDP per capita was low (25, $563) until around the 1900s when the life expectancy started to increase. The life expectancy kept increasing, while the GDP per capita continued to stay low until the 1980s when both the life expectancy and GDP per capita increased. In 2009, the life expectancy was 64, a huge improvement from 25, and the GDP/capita was $2731. By being able to increase its life expectancy, it shows that India has been able to afford better health care and thus, making the lives of the people longer. Also, by being able to increase its GDP per capita even though the population is becoming larger, it shows that they have a lot of economic growth. This is because, GDP per capita requires dividing the GDP among all the people and with more people, each person gets less money. However, India has still been able to increase the GDP per capita with more people to divide the money between. One can see that India has found a way to improve its poverty over the years.
This graph also shows the decrease of poverty over the years in India. One can see that the rural poverty, urban poverty, and poverty as a whole in this country continue to decrease. To decrease the poverty even further, many programs have been implemented in 1970 by the Indian government. One of the programs includes Training Rural Youth for Self Employment. This was started to provide the rural youth with skills needed to help them get employed in agriculture, industries, services, and business activities. Youth between the age of 18-35 in poor families are given some benefits of this scheme. Also, ex servicemen are given priority and 1/3 of the opportunities are given to women. Programs have also been created to reduce urban population such as Self-employment Programme for the Urban Poor and Scheme for Self-employment of he Educated Urban Youths. These programs give unemployed youths in urban areas loans and subsidies to help find or create jobs. The Self-employment Programme for the Urban Poor has been able to provide financial help to about 1.19 urban unemployed youths in the years 1990 to 1991. There are also other programs such a Public Distribution System, Integrated Rural Development Program, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, and the as well as other programs. With these programs helping those in poverty, there is a possibility of eradicating poverty.
Poverty is a huge issue in India because of the growing population and inadequate education leading to illiteracy. However, over the years, India has been able to reduce the poverty with more and more programs being executed. With this support, it is possible for poverty to be eradicated in India, but this process may take a lot time.
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Define the following terms: tourism, beach nourishment, and revetment wall.
Tourism is one of the land uses of the coast. Tourism is the act of travelling for pleasure and the business that is gained from this act. Beach nourishment is one of the soft engineering methods. This specific method is when sand and sometimes vegetation is added to the beach to make the sand stay. Lastly, revetment walls are a hard coastal engineering method. Revetment walls are right along the beach and are sloping structures that are usually placed on banks or cliffs to absorb the impact of the water.
Using Images 1 and 2, describe the importance of the coast of Surfers Paradise.
Every coast in important in some way, whether its for resource extraction, settlements, wildlife habitats, industries, tourism, or transportation. Looking at Image 1 and 2, there are two main reasons why the coast of Surfers Paradise is important. Firstly, the coast is important because of tourism as shown in Image 1. With the beach, people are encouraged to come to this country for vacation or other recreational purposes as well. Since tourism is an industry as the country earns money every time a tourist comes, this can really boost the economy for the country, and therefore the coast is important. Another reason why the coast is important is because of settlements. As shown in Image 2, many buildings and houses are located beside the coast. The coast is important for settlement because it is home for many people and it would be very dangerous and unfortunate if the coast got eroded.
Using Images 3 and 4, explain the coastal management strategies used at Surfers Paradise.
A coast is dynamic, meaning that it is constantly changing and therefore, needs to be managed. Coastal management is a type of management where strategies are used on place to protect areas from coastal erosion, transportation, and deposition. Coasts are very important in specific areas for several reasons and it is important to protect them from getting destroyed. Coastal erosion is the weathering and transportation of solids to some place else, and specifically in beaches, sand can be carried from the beach to somewhere far away. Long shore drift is when matter is moved along a coast by waves approached at an angle to the shore but are moved further away from it. This can also be a problem if the water ends up near homes. For these and other reasons, all coasts must be protected and managed.
Looking at Image 1, because Surfers Paradise is a beach, there must be some type of beach nourishment used. Beach nourishment is one of the soft engineering methods used. Soft coastal engineering does not require a lot of work since nothing is built and it tries to let natural processes work. Beach nourishment specifically, is when sand and sometimes vegetation is added to help the sand stay. This is important when sand that was eroded or lost through long shore drift needs to be replaced. It can prevent the sand from being further eroded on to where settlements are located. However, since the coast is dynamic, this process is a repetitive one. In Surfers Paradise, the beach is widened so that storm damage to coastal structures can be decreased since energy is dissolved across the surf zone. Because this is a beach that is used and looked at very often, not many hard engineering methods can be used because it could potentially make the place look unattractive. This is one of the reasons that beach nourishment is important because it can keep the beach healthy and attractive in a natural and unnoticeable way.
Another type of method used was hard engineering. Hard coastal engineering is when great changes are made to the coastal environment and require a lot of human energy to create because it needs to be built and maintained. There are two types of hard engineering methods used in this coast. Firstly, in Image 3, a revetment wall can be seen. A revetment wall is a sloping structure that keeps the shape of the beach and protects it from getting eroded by absorbing the impact of the water. This specific revetment wall was made with rocks to help it stay in place. This method is helpful in controlling the tides and keeping the beach intact. Because Surfers Paradise is a tourist area and based on that industry and also has many settlements along the coast, it is important for it to be protected from getting destroyed so that it continue to allow tourists and settlements on its coast. Without it, the beach could get eroded and this would mean that settlements would be destroyed and tourists would not visit this area.
The last and other type of hard engineering technique used was creating an artificial reef shown in Image 4. Building this reef received a lot of publicity from around the world since the reef and beach widening/ nourishment has “given the community every reason to get active and enjoy the great outdoors”. (Gold Coast City Council – Coastal Management, n.d.) It is used as an off-shore method to defend the beach against erosion and also to improve the surfing methods as this beach is very popular as a surfing area. It is built in the water so that it can also control the tides from getting on shore. Through these three coastal management strategies, Surfers Paradise has so far been able to keep its beach undamaged so that it continues to attract many tourists and settlements.
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Google Earth. Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast. Image taken on June 23, 2008 and retrieved on May 12, 2011.
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